Economic importance of quince
Quince is present in our fruit-growing with only 0, 8%, with an average yield of 7-15kg per tree which points to the fact that there is an extensive quince growing in our country.
There are practically no quince plantations on larger areas.
- “Pescara” Tavankut – Subotica – 26 ха
- “Takovo” Gornji Milanovac – 20 ха
- “Mladenovac” Mladenovac – 20 ха
- “Buducnost” Backa Palanka – 2 ха
The origin and prevalence of quince
Quince as a fruit variety that has been grown in many countries all over the world since old times.It has been well-known for 4000 years. It originated in the Caucasus; then it was spread to the east, then to the south to Little Asia, and to ancient Greece. Latin name for quince is Cydonia, it originated in Cydon, Crete where it has been grown from time immemorial.
Quince biological properties influence its distribution. In our region it blossoms late- from late April till mid May, so it avoids late spring frost. On the other hand, it ripens very late (160-170, even 180 days from the phase of full blossom). So its growing is related to the regions where autumn is long and mild. The situation is similar with altitude- quince should be grown at altitude higher than 700 metres.
However, quince is widespread in many countries all over the world, even at altitudes of 2500 meters in Tajikistan.
Systematic place for quince
Quince is known by many different names in different countries in the world. In Greece it is cydonia, in Italy cotogno, in Spain membrilo, in France-coing, in England- quince, in Bulgaria- djula, in Russia- ajva, and Latin –Cydonia.
Quince is a member of the family Rosaceae, subfamily Pomoideae, genus Cydonia. Culture varieties originated from Cydonia vulgaris L.; Cydonia oblonga Mill.
Biological characteristics of quince
- First yield is in its 2nd year;
- First important yield is from its 4th year onwards;
- Bigger yield starts from 5th-6th year onwards;
- Maximum yield is around 10th year.
- enhanced pyramidal crown
- open vase
- irregular palmette with oblique branches
- slender spindle, spindelbuš and pilar
- free form
- artificial rain (dew-like)
- drip irrigation
- fetigation (system drop-by-drop), the orchard is irrigated and fertilized at the same time.
- quince jelly
- quince cheese
- quince jam
- quince pasta
- quince sausages
- quince sudzuk “Moravac”
- quince juice (clear and mushy)
- quince in rum
- quince in wine
- quince liquor
- quince brandy
Yield per tree is around 10-60kg on plantations, while single trees give from 100 up to 400 kg.
The main mass of skeletal root (70%) is located at depth from 8 to 25cm, 25% of the root system is at depth of 25 to 3ocm, while under 30cm is inconsiderable number of vessels develop (5%).
Root is placed horizontally and in circles, and in the radius of free framework.
Quince grows 3-5m. You can rarely find trees 6m and more high. Its natural shape is bush, but it can relatrively be grown like a tree. On plantations, quince is usually grown in the shape of a tree.
In such orchards, quince has free-shaped framework. There can be seen irregular frameworks with sloped branches, short trees, vase-shaped trees, leader-shaped trees, etc. The shape of free framework depends on the characteristics of skeletal brances growth.Облик слободне круне зависи од катактеристика раста скелетних грана сорти. In addition to that, the shape of framework changes on fruit yield.
Skeletal branches are very tough and durable, provided that the angle of branches coming out from the trunk is well-appointed. Otherwise, especially in cases where two or more branches come out from one place in the middle of the tree, there is a tear. Such phenomena happen under the burden of crop and snow.
Quince leaf has a characteristic shape and look. When trees are healthy, it is dark green and it is hairy at the bottom. As it grows older, it is less and less hairy. The size of the leaf is very different: from very large (for example, vranjska) which can be 18 cm long to small ones (leskovacka)
In case of virosis, quince leaves become very small.
The tree gets leaves relatively early. Usuallu around 20 days before it blossoms. Leaves are active practically until late autumn, so they don’t fall off of trees because its chlorophyll doesn’t decompose and doesn’t form the layer to separate the leaf stalk and branches.
Quince offsprings develop out of buds. They are 5 to 15 cm long, with 3 to 5 normally developed leaves, and with a single flower at the top.
Quince flower consists of five nice leaves in white color or in white color with red at the top, 5 little leaves, 25 to 30 stamens and 5 five pestles.
After seeding, branches bearing flowers cease to grow. Quince is one of the fruits that bloom very late. After it, only medlar blooms.In our country, in various regions, quince blooms from mid-April to mid-May, and flowering takes a relatively long time, from 8 to 20 days.
With dense shoots it happens that lower flowers are in a state of flower buds, while at the top, they blossomed.
Quince fruit is fake because it develops from a trumpet flower and ad thicker flower boxes, Weight of the fruit is very different and it varies from 50 gramms with some wild species and some decorative forms to 2000 gramms with cultural varieties.
Fruits can be round (apple-shaped), (pear-shaped), bell-like, flattened, etc.
Fruit petiole is virtually a sprig on which a bloom developes.
Epidermis is smooth or hairy and flat when it is fully ripe it is lemon-like yellow and with a very pleasant smell.
The flesh is hard, and aromatic with a lot of stone cells.
For a successful commercial production of quince, a good choice of location is very important. That means that before growing them, especially at larger areas, you have to assure that conditions for its growing exist. These are climatic conditions, soil conditions, and terrain orography.
Quinces are heliofilic fruit, so well-lighted place suits them best. If the quince tree is overshadowed, the crops are not good, if the branchces are densed, they give fruit only on the periphery of the crown. The fruits which are overshadowed don’t get varietal characteristical aroma and are much greener and with hairs compared to fruits exposed to the sun.
Light as a factor in the successful production in our country means no limit.
The limiting factor in the spread of quince is heat itself. Quince grows well in vineyard area, while in cooler areas and at higher altitudes, fruits and wood are jeopardized.
The quince tree frosts at around -27° С, and buds and some older branches frost at -23°С.
A north quince, produced by Michurin is resistant to frost above -35°С.
The root of quince frosts at -12°С.
Quince petals are damaged at -1 ° C in the phase of, and if they are not open to damage will occur at about -1.5 ° C.
The fruits of quince, if they are exposed to early autumn frosts begin to freeze -2.2 ° C while, for example: apple fruit are frozen at -1.97 ° C and pears at -1.8 ° C.
Water and moisture
The amount of water in samples of quince is moving up to 85%, so without enough water in the home and air it can not be successfully grown.
However, quince relatively well tolerated drought periods. In extreme cases, folded sheets are used to reduce transpiration.
For normal growth and the successful cultivation of quince, the literature states that it takes a year to fall 750 to 990 mm of water with good layout in the growing season. But in practice proved to be very successful quince grown and the fruit-wine-growing areas where they usually fall over 600 mm of water per year.
Yet it gives much better results in terms of irrigation and optimum soil moisture should be maintained throughout the year, particularly in August and September when the most intensive growth of fruits.
Wind in the intensive plantations quince causes severe damage. If you blow after heavy rainfall can cause trees to lean. It may also affect the certain odvaljivanje scaffold branches or crown quince.
In addition, wind affects the water evaporation from the soil, the intensity of transpiration, the pollination of fruit trees to harvest and can cause a significant decline in fruit quince.
Consequently, in a windy positions desirable to raise the safety belt.
The most suitable soil for quince is the one with moderate moist, porous and rich in nutrients. Heavy and moist soil, and extremely dry and sandy and carbonate are not suitable for growing quince. On the highly calcareous soil on quince quince is threatened chlorosis.
A Quince tree has very favorable results in manure and fertilizer as well as other fruit species desirable that humus is the higher, at least 2-3%. Practice has however shown that there are very successful so far which have been built on land with only 1% to 1.5% and even less humus.
The thickness of the arable layer of quince should be at least 50 – 60 cm, in order to develop normally quince.
As far as orography, when choosing places to raise dunjika should pay attention to altitude, exposure and slope (inclination) of the terrain.
Selection of varieties
Number of varieties of quince is relatively small and limited to use only a few varieties in practice. In our most commonly used Leskovac and Vranje quince and less others.
This is a local variety is widespread in the valleys of the Great, Southern and Western Morava and in. The people called quince, as opposed to Vranje quince, which they call dunjac. Leskovac quince tree in the initial period of vigorous growth, but as soon as prorodi vigor is reduced and could be regarded as a medium. The crown is wide, round and folded under the weight of the branches that fall to the ground of gender. It is quite resistant to diseases and pests (except for the virus).
relatively early, and then gives rise to regular and abundant, mostly on short fruiting branches.
Fruit shape is jabučast, round, flat or ribbed, large to very large (200-500 grams).
Epidermis of fruits at full maturity is a citrus yellow; flesh is fine-grained, sour, fine aroma. Fruits can be easily transported, and they are usually transported in bulk. It ripens in mid to late October.
As shortcomings of this sort is easy decrease the wind, small fruits on poor soils and in poor yearsare mentioned, and so on.
This variety is known by the name dunjac. This is our old variety spread in the river basin of the South, West and geological characteristics, and less spread in other parts of Serbia.To our old species widespread in the basin of the South, West and Great Morava, and less in other parts of Serbia.
The tree of this variety is the beginning of yielding a very lavish, and then exuberance somewhat lower. Skeletal branches out at a low angle, and when prorode wrapping up half of the onion to the ground but not firing.
Vranje quince tree is more susceptible to diseases and pests of quince Leskovac.
List of Vranje quince is wide and large, oval or egg-shaped, nenazubljen, intensely green, with little hairs on the back side. The flower is big and beautiful.
Fruit is big or very big. It weighs from 400-800 grams, sometimes even more. The shape of it is pear-like, and it is much higher than wide. Rind is of middle, smooth, yellow, with fine spots, and with a distinct smell in a full maturity.
Fruit flesh is pale yellow, not very soft, sweet and sour, with a lot of stone cells, especially around the seed pocket. It has a pleasant smell. In general, the quality of fruit is good.
It is picked from the middle to the end of October for a direct cunsumation, and for processing it can be picked later.
Major flaws of this variety are: while being cooked, it decomposes very quickly. It is not very convenient for processing.
Pruning quinces in the genus
Quinn gives birth to a short, vitim and long branches.
Short fruiting branches are not abbreviated, as their gender (mixed) buds are at the top (usually 1 – 3). They izrođavaju after 3 – 4 years of birth, and therefore should have a strong increase to be used in the meantime create new ones.
Thin branches are generally not abbreviated, but only reduce.
Shortening the long branches of quince may potentiate better branching and production of new short and vitih branches, which is not always the case with other species on apple.
Summer pruning quince, or pruning the green also can be done and it gives very good results.
Distances for quince
The distance between rows and in the line depends on many factors and from: Applied surface, vigorous cultivar, training system, types of plants, environmental conditions and levels of systems.
In practice, fortunately the distance between rows 4 – 6 feet, a fine of 2.80 to 4.50 m.
Distance of 4 m between rows proved to be insufficient, because the quince grown free form, in full race at the end of growing season, under the burden of gender bending branches to the ground and fully enclosed space row. Separation of 6 feet is too large for flat crown shapes and would be too small number of trees per unit area.
Distance in the row, using the Pillar could be reduced to about 2 m and thereby enable increasing the number of seedlings per 1 000 trees per hectare.
For better pollination, quince, orchard layout to be made in the main (major) cultivars and varieties of pollinators (linked). It is desirable that the main variety is not far from the variety of pollinators over 15 m. This can be achieved if not more than 6 sadim among the main varieties. A possible arrangement in this case is 6:2:2. However, cases are far more favorable ratio 4:2, 4:2:2 or 4:1:1. In practice, most often planted where Leskovac and Vranje quince, and the relationship can be 6:2, 6:1 and so on.
Soil preparation for planting quince consists of clearing, cleaning and flattening if needed, then improving fertility and other soil properties (land reclamation), trenching phase and digging holes. Therefore, the land will be in August, the latest in September, or at least deeply izrigolovati izorati at 40 – 50 cm and 80 cm to undermine.
Then, the presumed area just before planting is parted, scaleed, the lines and rows of fruit trees are marked.
Protection from adverse climatic factors
If dunjik built on a very windy site, it should be raised so. Fast-growing tree plantations that will „crush“ the wind speed and thus reduce its harmful effects.
Quince is one of the fruits that are very sensitive to all kinds of mechanical damage, and the city.
Hail nets are a very effective way of protecting the city. Their use is very expensive, so they can protect only the production which gives a gross income of the rest of the income.
Protection against late spring frosts is provided naturally, therefore time of flowering quince, and it is not necessary to separately run.
Ways of maintaining land in quince plantations are as follows:
- Autumn processing (primary processing), to 10 cm depth
- Additional processing, which includes keeping the land in a state of barren fallow (clean tillage), Grass and mulčiranje
- Maintenance of soil herbicides.
With a herbicide application may begin in newly planted since the first year and this usually contact herbicides.
Young trees, up to five years of age, usually recharge individually with by 0.2 – 0.5 kg KAN and the 0,5 – 1,2 kg NPK 10:12:26 fertilizer formulation per tree, depending on the age.
The native plantings quince root system extends over the entire surface of the soil, so they trash the whole area dunjika, rules that depend on age and exhaustion of trees, planting density, etc. But roughly these are amounts of 200 – 400 kg of CAN and 400-600 kg NPK fertilizer.
Such fertilization is done in the fall and early in the spring (in the first half of March and early May) and in the summer, if the notice means a lack of certain elements is foliar feeding (spraying through the leaves) liquid formulations.
Quinn responds very well to irrigation, and since it is very demanding in this respect during the whole vegetative period, it should provide enough water.
Usually, the first sealing performed very early, at the time of opening buds. The second irrigation is recommended at the end of June’s decline was the third in July and the fourth in August, when fruits and shoots grow more intense.
All these irrigation should be abundant: in spring from 25 – 30 mm, and in summer with 50 – 60 mm per square meter.
Methods of irrigation are following:
Quince protection from diseases and pests
Intensive production does not require intensive expenditure of pesticides, but use the knowledge that the protection of the rational conduct.
Number of spraying should be as much as necessary to get a healthy crop. Certain percentage of damage will be tolerated. Suppression should be implemented at the time when pest or disease cross the economic threshold. Quince can be successfully protected with 6 – 8 treatments.
markings quince (Erwinia amylovora)
Symptoms occur with flowers, leaves and shoots. Infected parts quickly wither, brown, and later turn black, dry up and so over the twig. A characteristic of this disease is the appearance of „the rod“ on shoots and excrement – eskudat, first as a dairy and later drops flowing in silvery coating. It affects the branches and trunk, often produce damage to the bark. Wood under the bark is damaged with reddish mucous coating. The disease is spread during the whole growing season and by insects, rain, tools for work, especially equipment for pruning. Infect humans, birds, and safest way trees are diseased. Measures of control in the chemical sense are very limited.The obligation of all owners of orchards is to inform the competent authorities, inspection services.
Monilija quince (Sclerotinia cydoniae, Monillia neans, Monillia fructigena)
Density planting and high humidity during flowering are especially suitable for the development of this disease. Symptoms first appear on young leaves. First dark spots appear along the nerves, and later between them. On these spots a peculiar fragrance appears, to the conidia, which spread the disease on flowers, young fruits and twigs. The young fruits are infected by stamens, tan, mummify, and remain like that until the second spring of the branches if not eliminated.
The stock appears as a watery brown rot with characteristic concentric rings of fruiting bodies. The most effective way of combating this disease is preventive spraying. The first spraying is just before quince flowering, the second spraying at the time of full flowering, and the third spray after blooming. Besides these splash in the fall should pick up the infected leaves, the tips of branches and mummified fruit and burning them.
Out of other diseases, we will mention leaf blotch quince, then mildew and quince, with a note that the quince is quite resistant to this disease. Quince is attacked by a number of pests such as peach moth, apple moth, green aphid, shaggy beetles, moths, leaf miners, bark beetles, SIPC, bud moth, and so on.
Of rodents quince is attacked by rabbits, mice and water vole. Damage can be caused by deers.
Mechanization of quince
In the production plantings, for quince the same machinery is mostly used, as well as in classical planting.
Harvest time is crucial for the quality and technological properties of quinces due to the fact that the chemical composition changes rapidly one to one and a half months before the harvest. Since quince vegetates for a long period of time, it grows until the ond of October, with an early harvest, there would be great weight loss (up to 1% a day), but not the quality loss.The possibilities for storing will be less, and the loss during its storing will be bigger.If they are harvested late, there is the danger of excessive damage.
Harvest time is determined by the color of the rind, whether fruits can be separated from the branches easily, the color of seeds, etc. Vranjska and Leskovacka quinces are harvested 160 to 170 days after the full flowering. The fruits are picked manually, they should be turned upwards. The fruits of vranjska and lekovacka varieties don’t have the real petiole which simplifies harvesting, transport and storing due to the fact that there are no mechanical harms.The Vranje and Leskovac quince have the right stem of simplifying the harvesting, transport and storage, because there is no mechanical injury stems from the injection site.
During the harvest, you should pay attention not to break branches that carry the fruits because they will have buds for next year. Because quinces are hard, it is believed that they are not sensitive to any impacts. However, they are like apples and pears and very sensitive to impacts and if there is a mechanical damage, spots oxidize very quicky and become dark.
Quinces that are meant to be used fresh should be kept in plastic crates in one layer. Using splints is not necessary because fruits are big.
Quince for industrial processing are placed in palettes, which can be emptied at the bottom or in plastic crates and they are transported in bulk.
Storing quinces is a very delicate job.Quinces can be saved relatively well on condition that they don’t have any physiological diseases. On keeping quince there appear many parasitic and non-parasitic diseases. Quinces can be tarnished, bitter spots.Of all parasitic diseases, soft rot (Penicillium expansium)appears.
Growing quinces as alternative sort of fruit in relation to other sorts of fruit that are in current crisis due to overproduction, opens new possibilities. Quince requires less initial investmentа than other fruit varieties.In the process of regular production; costs are also much lower than costs with apples and pears.
Total cost of growing quince with yield of 40t per hectar is 40% less compared with apples and some varieties of winter pears.
Great advantage of guince in relation to other apple-like cultuvars is that quinces are put in packaging which can be used repeatedly, which ultimately affects the final financial result.